Gender Reassignment Surgery Male To Female Video Adapter
UK surgeries are seeing patient numbers rise as more people seek to undergo gender reassignment procedures.
Statistics have shown that some surgeries have seen demand shoot up over the past decade as society became increasingly accepting of trans-sexuality, but what is it and what is involved?
What is gender reassignment surgery?
Gender reassignment surgery is a surgical procedure where a transgender person can alter their existing characteristics to resemble that of their identified gender.
Genital surgeries may be performed on the individual who wishes to pursue sex reassignment surgery.
The surgery is part of treatment for gender dysphoria in transgender people, where a person experiences distress due to a mismatch of their biological sex and their gender identity.
It is also sometimes referred to as gender identity disorder (GID), transgenderism or gender incongruence.
Caitlyn Jenner revealed she "underwent gender reassignment surgery in January 2017" in new memoir The Secrets of My Life.
Until 2015, Caitlyn had been known as Bruce Jenner before revealing she was transgender during an interview with American TV journalist Diane Sawyer in April 2015.
Can you get gender reassignment surgery on the NHS?
Yes, gender reassignment surgery is available on the NHS, but may be subject to waiting lists.
Imperial College Healthcare Trust stated that as of April 24, 2017, there were 280 patients on the list for surgery, with 111 patients actively attending outpatient clinics or awaiting surgery. Another 169 patients were under the Trust's care but not currently ready for surgical procedures.
NHS gender identity clinics offer transgender health services but people will usually need to be referred by their GP.
GP referrals for gender dysphoria treatments are usually followed by an assessment by a psychiatrist or another specialist doctor before treatment begins.
In 2014 there were 172 sex operations on the NHS— double the 83 of a decade earlier — costing taxpayers at least £2million.
On average, the waiting time for a sex change therapy is nine months for adults and half this time for kids.
TRANS WOMEN SURGICAL OPTIONS MAY INCLUDE:
- Breast implants
- Removal of testicles (orchidectomy)
- Removal of penis (penectomy)
- Creation of a vagina (vaginoplasty)
- Creation of a clitoris (clitoroplasty)
- Creation of labia or ‘lips’ of the vagina (labioplasty)
- Facial feminisation surgery
- Trachea (or Adam’s apple) shaving
How much does gender reassignment surgery cost privately?
The costs for gender reassignment surgery can vary depending on the complexity of the surgery.
A quote will be made to a patient following a consultation with a surgeon.
According to ITV, the cost of gender reassignment is £19,236 per patient, this figure includes support as well as surgery.
FOR TRANS MEN SURGICAL OPTIONS MAY INCLUDE:
- Chest surgery/ breast removal (double mastectomy)
- Removal of the womb (hysterectomy)
- Removal of the ovaries (oophorectomy)
- Removal of the vagina (vaginectomy)
- Construction of a phallus (phalloplasty) or ‘micropenis’ (metoidioplasty)
- Creation of a scrotum with testicular implants (scrotoplasty)
How does gender reassignment surgery work?
Gender reassignment works by changing genital organs from one sex to another.
Converting a male to a female requires removal of the penis and the reshaping of the genital tissue to appear more female to create a vagina.
Female hormones will then be given to reshape the body and stimulate the growth of breasts.
Female to male surgery involves the creation of a functioning penis from smaller clitoral tissue.
Breasts will often be removed to create a masculine chest area.
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Ms. Nimmons sounded uncharacteristically subdued when she answered her phone on a trip home to South Carolina a few weeks later.
“I’m at peace that I have lived the life I was given to the best of my abilities,” she said when asked how she was doing. “I really don’t feel my work is done, but what has to be has to be.”
She was in a hospital, ragingly ill with bacterial meningitis, and the fight had gone out of her. It did not help that she had just learned that a former boyfriend, in his 30s, had entered hospice care.
“Christopher helped me pay for my top surgery,” she said, referring to her breast implants. “I call him the father of my twins.”
She continued: “He’s been sick 15 years; I’ve been sick 24. He always had more problems, but sometimes, you know, because of my status, my immune system gets kind of compromised and weakened.”
Ms. Nimmons learned she was H.I.V. positive at 16. It was the unfortunate legacy of her very first relationship, she said, with a man 17 years older than her who died last year, leaving her not knowing whether to feel sad or mad.
She had accompanied a girlfriend who needed a pregnancy test to a clinic in her hometown, Orangeburg. While there, she decided on a whim to be tested for H.I.V. The health department sent workers to track her down at home or at school to deliver the bad news.
“At 16, I didn’t know what to do with the information,” she said. “I kept it hidden for years.”
She had had practice keeping her mouth shut. “You’re taught within the African-American family that you have to be quiet with certain things; certain things are not to be spoken of,” she said.
As a child, she thought of herself as “a little boy named Jerome that was cute, that was adorable, that was very feminine.” Attitudes were far different in the rural South in the 1980s than they are now for “my little Jazz,” she said, referring affectionately to Jazz Jennings, the transgender girl in South Florida who has an accepting family and a reality show on TLC.
Ms. Nimmons knew from about age 10 that she liked boys, and everybody else knew, too. She was routinely called “sissy,” assigned the role of cheerleader during neighborhood basketball games and denied entry to a local Boy Scout troop, she said.
Still, nothing was said aloud inside her home, not even after she swallowed a bottle of Midol pills, the only thing she could find in the medicine cabinet, and landed in a psychiatric hospital under suicide watch.
Sometime later, after an argument, a friend of hers put a photograph of Ms. Nimmons under the windshield wipers of her mother’s car. In the picture, Ms. Nimmons was wearing a dress, one of her mother’s. Infuriated, her mother threw the picture at her and then, she said, burned it and the dress in the backyard.
Soon, she said, her mother kicked her out of the house and, not knowing about Ms. Nimmons’s diagnosis, tried to scare her by saying she would end up dead of AIDS if she did not quit being gay. Her mother came to regret the remark, “feeling like she marked me, so to say, or spoke it into existence,” Ms. Nimmons said.
Ms. Nimmons moved in with a friend’s family, graduated from high school and left South Carolina for Atlanta. For a year, she studied mass communications at Clark Atlanta University. But her failure to seek treatment for H.I.V. caught up with her, and she became deathly ill with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
“That was my saddest moment,” her mother, Mamie Johnson Nimmons, said. “Learning she was H.I.V. positive and that she was so sick, in and out of the hospital — she was supposed to be in college!”
At that time, in the mid-1990s, a cocktail of new drugs was being used to treat people with H.I.V., and the antiretroviral therapy was proving highly effective.
But Ms. Nimmons, on leaving a hospital, did not keep taking the pills.
“Back home, the health care system treated us like freaks,” she said. “So you didn’t trust the system and you didn’t trust the medication and you were basically in denial.”
Transgender women, and particularly black transgender women, are at especially high risk for H.I.V. infection. A meta-analysis of studies in 15 countries estimated that H.I.V. prevalence for transgender women was nearly 50 times as high as for other adults of reproductive age.
“Many trans people, shut out by their families, the education system, the workplace and the health care system, end up not having choices around what they do to survive and to transition,” said JoAnne Keatley, the director of the Center of Excellence for Transgender Health at the University of California, San Francisco. “They resort to sex work. They resort to alcohol and drugs to cope. They have poor options in terms of sex partners.
“Throw in racism on top of transphobia,” she continued, “and, for transgender women of color, it’s a perfect storm for the epidemic.”
In New York City, 93 percent of transgender women with newly diagnosed H.I.V. over a recent five-year period were black or Hispanic, a study showed.
Doug Wirth, the president of Amida Care, said he saw providing access to transgender health care as a key step toward ending the H.I.V./AIDS epidemic by 2020, which is a New York state goal. Helping those who are already H.I.V. positive become “virally suppressed” will in turn help bring down “unacceptably high rates of new H.I.V. infection among people of trans experience,” he said.
Ms. Nimmons agrees. But was it too late for her, she wondered in July, lying in the hospital bed where she had spent the previous 10 days?
“I wanted to thank you,” she told a reporter on the phone. “I know whatever happens to me, you will be my storyteller.”Continue reading the main story